You need to reply to 2 of the classmates on the subject and you need to reply directly by their names and you should have referance page for each treply.
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Jelenny RE: Discussion – Week 5
Week 5 Discussion
Purpose of the Program Evaluation
Parent Management Training is an intervention used to treat children and adolescents demonstrating problematic disruptive and aggressive behavior. PMT involves teaching parents techniques to help their children improve behaviors and learn new skills. The XYZ Pediatric Care Facility is seeking to evaluate the effectiveness of the 11-week program that referred parents to the PMT program. The purpose of the proposed evaluation is to assess the difficulty parents have in receiving help with children who struggle with conduct disorders (gap in care), evaluate the treatment effectiveness of the PMT program, and appraise whether or not incentives to participate actually increase parental awareness and participation. An examination of the program is essential in identifying the efforts of the facility in providing quality care to families and patients who could benefit from the program. It also aims at determining the extent to which the program focuses on achieving the objectives.
Methods Applied in the Articles Reviewed
Shannon et al. (2015) created a set of interview instruments to systematically collect qualitative data from individuals involved in implementing a probation pilot program in Kentucky. The Supervision, Monitoring, Accountability, Responsibility, and Treatment (SMART) program sought to decrease substance use, new violations, and incarceration-related costs for high-risk probationers by increasing and randomizing drug testing, intensifying supervision, and creating linkages with needed resources (Shannon et al., 2015). The methods used in the study are relevant to the proposed evaluation my group was assigned to work on because it examines the implementation of community-based program for participants who exhibit at-risk behaviors (e.g. children exhibiting problematic behavior). The process evaluation interviews that were integrated in the evaluation program included goals/organization, the perceived impact of the program on the community, and barriers to program implementation and future recommendations. The evaluation of the program was qualitative in nature and it captured the experiences implementing the SMART probation program for those in the study. In a similar way, the evaluation process could be used to capture the experiences of those implementing the PMT program and those participating in the program to evaluate program effectiveness.
Situation where the Selected Method would be Appropriate to the Questions and Planned uses of the Information, as well as other Considerations Raised by Patton
Utilizing a qualitative approach might be appropriate to evaluate the effectiveness of the PMT program implemented at XYZ Pediatrics. The program’s staff and screeners and participants could be interviewed about their participation in the program and the interviews can be transcribed. Shannon et al. (2015) informed of the importance of data immersion, which include reading the data collected, which can lead to the development of themes. The themes can be coded into categories, analyzed, and interpreted.
The Qualitative Evaluation Checklist proposed by Patton inform of the extent to which qualitative methods are appropriate given the evaluation’s purposes and intended uses. In the case of evaluating the effectiveness of the PMT program, a qualitative method could be appropriate to address questions relating to program implementation and success. Patton suggests to identify a general strategic theme of qualitative inquiry, determine qualitative design strategies, data collection options, and analysis approaches based on the evaluation’s purpose, and assess design decisions so that the design answers important evaluation questions for intended users (Patton, 2003).
Appropriateness, Strengths and Limitations that might Happen in a Program Evaluation that Includes Qualitative Design Elements
A qualitative approach to program evaluation would answer questions such as “What is the value added?”, “Who was responsible?”, and “How can we do this better?’’ For the PMT program, qualitative data can be collected through direct or participant observation, interviews, focus groups, and case studies and from written documents. The strengths of qualitative data include providing contextual data to explain complex issues by explaining the “why” and “how” behind the “what.” The limitations of qualitative data for evaluation may include lack of generalizability, the time-consuming and costly nature of data collection, and the difficulty and complexity of data analysis and interpretation (Babbie, 2017).
Babbie, E. (2017). Basics of social research (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Patton, M. Q. (2003). Qualitative evaluation checklist. Retrieved from https://wmich.edu/sites/default/files/attachments/u350/2018/qual-eval-patton.pdf
Shannon, L. M., Hulbig, S. K., Birdwhistell, S., Newell, J., & Neal, C. (2015). Implementation of an enhanced probation program: Evaluating process and preliminary outcomes. Evaluation and Program Planning, 49, 50–62. doi:10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2014.11.004
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Beverley RE: Discussion – Week 5
Post your comprehensive response to each of the following:
Briefly restate the purpose of your program evaluation.
The DCC–Parents Supporting Parent Empowerment (DCC-PSPE) organization, which is an Illinois based non-profit, recommended a program that supports parental empowerment for parents who have children afflicted with disorders of the corpus callosum (DCC) (Laureate Education, n.d.). The DCC-PSPE was founded in 2012. Furthermore, proper diagnoses seem to elude even the medical experts, much of the time. Thus, the DCC-PSPE organization wants assistance in obtaining proper diagnoses, and in securing the medical personnel to help facilitate this (Laureate Education, n.d.).
An additional key purpose for this evaluation is in doing outreach and education (Laureate Education, n.d.). The outreach extends to parents and children, medical, psychological, educational, and other community members and services. This will help everyone understand DCC better and help empower parents (Laureate Education, n.d.), as knowledge is power.
Select one of the three methods applied in the articles you have reviewed.
The method I chose was program monitoring. In the past and presently, monitoring of programs has been show to be very pertinent (Linfield & Posavac, 2019). Businesses do things to check themselves every day in various ways; such as keeping track of inventory.
However, historically, evaluators have revealed the efficacy of program monitoring. In their successful conductions of program monitoring, evaluators have shown that things run more smoothly and accurately, when program monitoring occurs throughout and not just at the very end (Linfield & Posavac, 2019). Additionally, managers benefit from this type of monitoring. It allows managers and everyone else in the process, to see problems early, to see that things are moving as planned, to validate the continuation of things, and to allow for future planning (Linfield & Posavac, 2019).
In completing this part, we are supposed to reference an article in the required reading that reflects our choice of method. I chose the article by Yeo. The crux of this study is creating a monitoring method of courses by students in Korean medical schools (Yeo, 2018). Reportedly, this is a standard practice in Korea (Yeo, 2018).
In facilitating this proposed method, the ADDIE model was the template (Yeo, 2018). The ADDIE model incorporates several phases. ADDIE is an acronym for these phases. These phases encompass items such as analysis, development of the design, execution, and appraisal to evaluate things (Yeo, 2018).
During the analysis phase, the goals of the program were established, by assessing the needs (Yeo, 2018). During the design phase, approaches for monitoring courses were operationalized and subjects and execution were developed. During the development phase, measurement and evaluation methods were created and adopted (Yeo, 2018).
During the implementation phase, the monitors received training; the actual monitoring of courses was conducted, and the results of the evaluation were gathered (Yeo, 2018). The entire method was created to facilitate ease of use across courses. A key part of the system methods included a dissemination of key information to those in operations, on ways to streamline things (Yeo, 2018).
Using the general situation presented in your RFP (e.g., a school anti-bullying program), describe a situation where the method you selected would be appropriate to the questions and planned uses of the information.
The method I chose, program monitoring, would be appropriate for the questions and planned uses of the information, as they apply to this program proposal. In this proposal, there are so many checks and balances within it. In choosing a situation, I found one that is germane to the entire success. As stated above, it is critical that proper healthcare personnel are chosen, as proper diagnosis has proven to be difficult (Laureate Education, n.d.).
Besides just the diagnostic medical personnel, many different kinds of medical, psychological, behavioral, and other kinds of personnel will reportedly be needed (Laureate Education, n.d.). As a result of this, there will be assessments for searches of the proper personnel. However, program monitoring would also be efficacious. As stated, program monitoring allows every key person in the process, to notice problems early, to confirm things are moving as planned, which validates the continuing the plans, and allows for continued planning (Linfield & Posavac, 2019). In that vein, monitoring the program to see that the correct personnel were chosen and doing their parts.
Other considerations raised by Patton (see Patton’s checklist).
Regarding program monitoring, in examining the second part of this question, the considerations raised by Patton, several things apply. First, in looking at item 7, regarding the ethical considerations (Patton, 2002), this is important in any study. In looking at this program proposal, ethical considerations are rampant.
In this program proposal, a severe medical condition is being assessed in children. Also, many different medical personnel are going to be vetted, with some being retained and others not (Laureate Education, n.d.). Because of this, risk assessment, confidentiality, and informed consent, are just some of the concerns (Patton, 2002).
It is vital to contact the IRB and make sure the program is in sync with its requirements (Patton, 2002). Additionally, informed consent should likely be obtained from all parties. Regarding confidentiality, as there will be many people with access to the medical records and information about the afflicted child, and the parents, as the program focus is on them and their empowerment (Laureate Education, n.d.). Thus, there would likely be a need for a psychological assessment to help facilitate this. In that regards, developing ways to protect the information, such as disguising names by using other modes of identification (Patton, 2002).
Regarding program monitoring, in examining item 2, regarding the strategic themes, the theme that seems most appropriate to the proposed program, is the one that is priority focused (Patton, 2002). An example of how this applies to the study would be that the focus would be on how the outcomes affect parental empowerment (Laureate Education, n.d.), rather than the magnitude of the outcome (Patton, 2002). The focus is on the parents viewpoints. Again, this is in keeping with the proposed program, as the focus of it is parental empowerment (Laureate Education, n.d.).
Regarding program monitoring, in examining items 3-4, and 6, the focus is on evaluation applications, design answers and evaluation questions, and open-ended interviewing (Patton, 2002). In examining evaluation applications, in dealing with the parents and the children, qualitative applications should be human focused, evaluation models should be collaborative, and individual outcomes should be addressed. In examining design answers and evaluation questions, the proposed program is likely a structure-focused study and a people-focused study (Patton, 2002). The structural components are the medical and psychological personnel, and the facilities. The people-focused part of this study is on the parents and the afflicted children (Laureate Education, n.d.).
In examining open-ended interviewing possibilities, this would likely help put parents and children at ease. Following a conversational interview approach, would likely be effective with them (Patton, 2002). Alternatively, structured, open-ended interviewing (Patton, 2002) would likely be most effective with the medical and psychological personnel, as the purpose is to seek out the appropriate medical and psychological skills for this program (Laureate Education, n.d.).
Why would this method be appropriate in this situation? List the reasons.
1. It would allow the program to be monitored and evaluated at key points in the development; in order to ensure the correct personnel, for diagnostics and beyond, have been chosen.
2. It would allow the program to be monitored and evaluated at key points in the development; in order to check-in with the parents and their children, prior to the end of things.
3. It would allow the program to be monitored and evaluated at key points in the development; in order to assess whether or not the procedures and activities are able to achieve the goals, at various points.
Explain the strengths and limitations that might happen in a program evaluation that includes qualitative design elements.
While it is not quantifiable, a strength is that qualitative studies can provide important information that quantitative studies cannot (Queiros et al., 2017). For example, given this is a discussion of conducting program monitoring, the attitudes, beliefs, values, social (Queiros et al., 2017) information is invaluable.
Another strength that qualitative designs provide is to provide a multifaceted comprehension of the problem (Queiros et al., 2017). That is the crux of program monitoring. It is to uncover any problems (Linfield & Posavac, 2019) to deal with them in a timely fashion.
Another strength is individual occurrences are explored. This allows for a more detailed comprehension of the concerns (Shannon et al., 2015).
Another strength of qualitative research is that it is descriptive in settings. For example, it is beneficial in creating policy, as it includes depictions of the settings in which said policies will be put into practice (Anderson, 2010).
Another strength of qualitative research is that it is effective when it comes to researching educational problems (Anderson, 2010).
One limitation in conducting qualitative research is that it cannot be quantified (Queiros et al., 2017).
Quantifiable results can be statistically analyzed and can be generalized to the population (Queiros et al., 2017). Qualitative research cannot be generalized to the population (Public Health Action Support Team CIC, 2020).
Another limitation in conducting a qualitative study is that there is less organization when it comes to creating a theoretical framework and in analyzing the hypotheses (Queiros et al., 2017).
A quality study depends on the skills and the reliability of the evaluator (Patton, 2002). While this makes sense, it is important to understand that just because it is not a more formal quantitative study, it requires skills and training. Not everyone can walk off the street and do this.
Another weakness of qualitative in conducting qualitative research is that it requires excessive tie and work (Public Health Action Support Team CIC, 2020).
What are some of your thoughts for how you would design this kind of evaluation for this kind of situation? (If your RFP already involves one of these three types, e.g., a process evaluation, select another type for this application question.)
One way to proceed would be utilizing the ADDIE model (Yeo, 2018).
ADDIE Model –
Analysis & Design Phases:
In conducting program monitoring, several things come to mind. First, it is critical to ensure that the information acquired is in keeping with the intention and the purpose of the program (Linfield & Posavac, 2019). So, the evaluators need to make sure that the questions meet this requirement, by examining the intention and the purpose, in order to properly gear assessments.
Secondly, the information needs to reflect the present condition of the program (Linfield & Posavac, 2019), both positive and negative. It must be realistic and accurate. The evaluators must look at said present condition, not what may be in a descriptive report on the proposed program (Linfield & Posavac, 2019).
Thirdly, in preparing the program monitoring evaluation, it is important to clarify the population and their needs (Linfield & Posavac, 2019). Furthermore, said needs need to be evaluated to measure their appropriateness for the current program. This program monitoring evaluation is an excellent opportunity to alter the needs to fit the program (Linfield & Posavac, 2019).
Fourthly, it is important at this stage to identify the service providers (Linfield & Posavac, 2019). In this program proposal, there are a myriad of medical and psychological providers to consider. So, in conducting a program monitoring evaluation for this program proposal, this would be efficacious.
Taking all of the above information into consideration, the actual measurements are developed. Open-ended interviewing would likely help put parents and children at ease. A conversational interview approach would likely be best (Patton, 2002). In dealing with the medical and psychological personnel, using open-ended interviewing (Patton, 2002) would likely be most effective.
In this phase the evaluators or monitors would get training (Yeo, 2018) on how to properly monitor the program. This is also the phase where the evaluators or monitors actually evaluate or monitor the proposed program. Lastly, the results of the evaluation are collected (Yeo, 2018).
The references are properly formatted. If the references do not indent properly upon posting, all I can say is that they were correct prior to posting. Sorry! Thank you!
Anderson, C. (2010). Presenting and evaluating qualitative research. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(8), 1-7.
Laureate Education. (n.d.). Program Evaluation Request for Proposal: Parent Empowerment. https://class.content.laureate.net/749cbf8e9f9bfb48e04b45e889e15d83.html.
Linfield, K. J., & Posavac, E. J. (2019). Program evaluation: Methods and case studies (9th ed.). London: Routledge.
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative evaluation checklist. https://wmich.edu/sites/default/files/attachments/u350/2018/qual-eval-patton.pdf
Public Health Action Support Team CIC. (2020). The principles of qualitative methods. https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/research-methods/1d-qualitative-methods/principles-qualitative-methods-exercise2answers
Queiros, A., Faria, D., & Almeida, F. (2017). Strengths and limitations of qualitative and quantitative research methods. European Journal of Education Studies, 3(9), 369-386.
Shannon, L. M., Hulbig, S. K., Birdwhistell, S., Newell, J., & Neal, C. (2015). Implementation of an enhanced probation program: Evaluating process and preliminary outcomes. Evaluation and Program Planning, 49, 50-62.
Yeo, S. (2018). Course quality management based on monitoring by students at a medical school. Korean Journal of Medical Education, 30(2), 141–152. doi:10.3946/kjme.2018.89
You need to reply to 2 of the classmates on the subject and you need to reply directly by their names and you should have referance page for each treply.