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What is the relationship between Endomembrane System, Insulin and Insulin Receptor, activation by phosphorylation, membrane-bound polyribosomes, and Glucose Transport Channels?

Each questions needs to be answered separately please with distinct breaks between. No citations needed.
Concept Integration Question #1: What is the relationship between Endomembrane System, Insulin and Insulin Receptor, activation by phosphorylation, membrane-bound polyribosomes, and Glucose Transport Channels? Describe what you learned about the gut and nutrient absorption in the microscopy lab. Please note this question does NOT overlap with CIQ#2 below. Include the material you covered up to this point. Do not leave the portion dealing with the GUT to be covered only in CIQ#2 or you will lose points.
Concept Integration Question #2: What is the relationship between Microvilli of gut, epithelium, glucose, circulatory system, capillary fenestrations, glucose/ATP/life?
Concept Integration Question #3: What is the relationship between diabetes, glucose in food, saliva, microvilli, blood transport of glucose, beta cells of pancreas, diabetes- elevated blood glucose, glomerulus, glucose in urine?
1) Important portions of the Labster Labs for your Concept Integration Project
a. Microscopy Lab: Look at the structure of the chicken intestine and the Theory related to the intestine near the beginning of the Lab. You can note your progress through the Lab because the “Lab Pad” will show you what percent of the lab you have completed in the upper right corner of the “Lab Pad”. When you are about 24% of the way through the Microscopy Lab you will have a view of the chicken intestine and there will be a “Theory” segment associated with it.
i. An important thing to note here is “Where is the Circulatory System (i.e., capillaries) with regard to the Villi of the intestine? When you are approximately 69 – 70% of the way through the Lab you will learn about the “Microvilli” (note that Microvilli are not Villi – they are related, but different).
ii. An important thing to note here is “How do microvilli increase the surface area of the intestine, and is this important for absorption of nutrients? Remember that the food (including sugar) taken in at the mouth is what ends up in the lumen of the intestine, but to get nutrients into the blood they must pass across the plasma membrane which is on the Microvilli.
b. Blood Glucose/Sugar Lab AND Cellular Respiration Lab:
i. What is the relationship between a carbohydrate and a sugar?
ii. What is the relationship between a sugar and a polysaccharide?
iii. What is the relationship between chewing and a polysaccharide?
iv. Glucose makes ATP; is that important for life?
v. What is glycogen?
vi. Did you see the relationship between the liver and blood glucose levels?
vii. In case study 1 you provided an answer about the glycemic index. Based on this Labster Lab, how did your understanding of the glycemic index change?
viii. Finally, why don’t we just remove anything that has glucose in it from our diet?
2) Important portions of the Video Lectures for your Concept Integration Project.
a. Module 2c, Part 4: How does the Endomembrane System which gave rise to a new type of protein synthesis relate to the ligand Insulin, and the receptor who name is Insulin Receptor?
b. Module 3: What is it in the plasma membrane that lets glucose into the cell, and how does this happen?
c. Module 5 and 5b: Why is it relevant that insulin is made from membrane bound polyribosomes?
d. Module 9: So is glucose bad for us, should it be avoided?
e. Module 14, Parts 8, 9, 10: How do we get glucose out of long chain carbohydrates (i.e., polysaccharides) and where does it start? Are long chain carbohydrates directly absorbed from the lumen into the cells of the Villi? And do such long chain carbohydrates then enter the circulatory system?
f. Module 5: How is the endocrine system related to diabetes – more specifically what causes insulin to be released from the beta cells of the pancreas? And is it paracrine or endocrine communication? A separate question: Does insulin use a cytoplasmic receptor or a transmembrane receptor?
g. Module 15, starting with Part 6: How is glucose carried to all the cells in the body. <- The answer I am looking for here is not the heart and it is not the circulatory system. If you had a cross section of a capillary and I said, “ point to where the glucose molecules are” – where would you point exactly…. that is what is carrying the glucose molecules.
h. Module 16, Part 4 starting at 5:20 into the video and to the end of Module 16: People with high blood glucose level can have glucose in their urine, how can that happen?
3) Important portions of the Case Studies for your Concept Integration Project.
a. Case Study 1:
i. Case Study 1 Paragraph 6: Think about the question: How does the sugar in Morgan’s blood get eliminated in the urine?
ii. As part of the answer in Case Study 1, you are directed to comment on the “Glycemic Index”. Consider what you learned about the Glycemic Index in Case Study 1 and again when you get to the last Labster Lab, the one entitled Blood Glucose/Carbohydrates. What did the result of the analysis of the carrots add to your knowledge about the Glycemic Index?
b. Case Study 2:
i. Recall that on Exam 1, Module 5 we considered Signal Transduction. Blood glucose levels (which can lead to diabetes) are regulated by signal transduction. Different parts of the body do different things in the regulation of blood glucose level – Consider the following questions when formulating your answer:
a) Which part(s) of the body measures blood glucose levels?
b) Which part(s) of the body can store glucose in the form of glycogen -link this with the Video Lectures (Modules 12 and 14).
c) Recall that there are two major cytoplasmic signaling pathways, one involves calcium and the other involves phosphorylation (i.e., a kinase adds the gamma phosphate from ATP to another protein). a) Which phosphorylation events did you learn about in the Insulin Pathway in Case Study 2?