Categories
Medicine

Organ Transplants

Organ Transplants
There are many patients on organ transplant waiting lists who are dying because of inadequate numbers of vital organs available for transplant.
There are suggestions for the United States to develop an “opt-out” donation program. This would mean all deaths could, if appropriate, be a potential organ donor unless the individual had specifically rejected to be a donor.
What is YOUR opinion?
1. In order to obtain enough organs to be transplanted into needy patients, should laws be passed which allow organs to be obtained from persons who have died without prior permission of the patient or family?
2. Do you believe an opt-out option is a good idea? What are potential the ethical concerns?
**** Use examples from the reading and required resources to support your answers to the above questions.
require source:




http://unos.org/ (Links to an external site.)
http://www.transplants.org/ (Links to an external site.)
http://www.eyedonation.org/history.html
Kidney transplant development by CBS
Kidney Transplant Breakthrough (Links to an external site.)
Pay it Forward Kidney Transplants by CBS
Pay It Forward Kidney Donation (Links to an external site.)
Kidney Sales in India by Journeyman Pictures
The Lucrative Illegal Organ Trade in India (Links to an external site.)
Organ Trafficking
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/10146338/Organ-trafficking-a-deadly-trade.html (Links to an external site.)
New Technology: Living Tssue

http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/deadbymistake/ny/6576709.html (Links to an external site.)
http://www.livingdonor101.com/legal.shtml (Links to an external site.)
Updates on living liver donation
http://www.health.ny.gov/nysdoh/liver_donation (Links to an external site.)
New organ donation rules in NYS to protect living donors.
http://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/26/nyregion/state-to-give-liver-donors-safeguards-in-transplants.html?ref=michaelhurewitz (Links to an external site.)
http://www.transplantliving.org/before-the-transplant/financing-a-transplant/ (Links to an external site.)
Financing living transplant donations
http://www.livingdonor101.com/LDNYinsurancelaws2008.pdf (Links to an external site.)
Insurance rules for life insurance, etc. for living donors.
http://www.health.ny.gov/professionals/patients/donation/organ/
Please complete the homework as required. Please remember that I am an international student from China. Please don’t use too difficult grammar and vocabulary. Don’t forget to reply to the classmates post, which is also part of the homework.
first classmates post:Hello all and Professor,
Organ Transplants
At present, the United States (US) utilizes the “donor model,” a model of consent for organ recovery from deceased people that focuses on the privileges of the individual over the necessities of society by requiring approval or unequivocal agreement before a deceased individual’s tissue and organ recovery (Huml et al., 2021). The idea of presumed consent is, needless to say, very controversial. The argument in favor of it is that there is a desperate need for healthy organs. It can save lives; against it, the belief of some religious groups that resurrection in the body means literally in the body so that missing organs would not be replaced. And, of course, the shiver is summoned by the images of some Igor rummaging around in a recent corpse.
I am perfectly comfortable with it. If the very last thing you can do is to help someone live, to save a life, it seems to me your family should be proud of that. A donor could save lives of eight individuals and improve fifty other people’s lives with donated tissue (Ahmad et al., 2019). I would feel pretty good if I knew that was my legacy. I’d want it written on my tombstone. It is a complex but brave decision for relatives to make if the deceased is not on the donor registry. How much easier for everyone if it became normalized and the decision was taken out of the hands of the grieving? Of course, there are people for whom the body must be intact after death, and they have the opportunity to opt out. I anticipate that they would also opt-out of receiving donated organs. To take but refuse to give would be hypocritical
References
Ahmad, M. U., Hanna, A., Mohamed, A. Z., Schlindwein, A., Pley, C., Bahner, I., … & Jarmi, T. (2019). A systematic review of opt-out versus opt-in consent on deceased organ donation and transplantation (2006–2016). World journal of surgery, 43(12), 3161-3171.
Huml, A. M., Sedor, J. R., Poggio, E., Patzer, R. E., & Schold, J. D. (2021). An opt‐out model for kidney transplant referral: The time has come. American Journal of Transplantation, 21(1), 32-36.
Shana
second classmates post:
Hello Professor and Classmates,
The United States utilizes the “donation model”, a consent model for deceased organ recovery that prioritizes the rights of the individual (or of the surrogate decision maker) over the needs of society by requiring authorization or explicit consent prior to deceased organ and tissue recovery (HRSA, 2016). A law should not be passed because as I mentioned below everyone has their own beliefs and permission should be obtained from the patient and family.
1. In order to obtain enough organs to be transplanted into needy patients, should laws be passed which allow organs to be obtained from persons who have died without prior permission of the patient or family?
No, A law should not be passed to allow an organ to be obtained from a person without prior permission of the patient or family. This is because, people have different beliefs and honor towards their deceased , some believe that when an organ is removed due to death, they might face judgment from God for having incomplete body organs. Others believes that as a way to honor their deceased one, they should not cause any harm or interfere with his or her body organs. Therefore in case the Law needs to be passed, a consent should be sought in both parties to come up with clear agreement but not to pass the law without involving the consent of the deceased families.
2. Do you believe an opt-out option is a good idea? What are potential the ethical concerns?
No, Opt-out option is not a good idea. This is because, in opt-out systems, organ donation will occur automatically unless a specific request is made before death for organs not to be taken. This will show unethical value towards the deceased. The potential of the ethical concern is the show of Respect to the deceased. One of the primary reasons why we should show respect to the dead is to maintain positive relationships with the people who have been left behind.
People should show respect to the dead because they are totems that remind us to renew ourselves in the time we have left to us; to orientate ourselves to values that have deep meaning for us, and to cherish the living and this unsettling, curious thing we call life.
Reference:
HRSA. (2016, December 9). Ethics of deceased organ donor recovery – OPTN. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://optn.transplant.hrsa.gov/resources/ethics/ethics-of-deceased-organ-donor-recovery/
Comments from Customer
Discipline: bioethics