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M‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍y famous person is Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his Polio Disability and how he persevered through his disability to win the war against Japan, and how he brought the United States out of the great depression. How he helped create the march of dimes that helps fight polio. Please follow the Rubric Use Chapter 5 I have uploaded for research, and all the Stage models, and citation. Nonprofit Disability Charity Organizations The 1991 Harris Poll regarding attitudes nondisabled Americans had toward those with disabilities asked one particular question regarding the most popular sentiment or emotion that persons with disabilities evoked (Lou Harris & Associates, 1991). Oddly enough, the two most popular sentiments reported were pity and admiration. How could the public be at such diverse ends on the emotional spectrum about these perceptions? The answer it appears comes from the media and how disability is portrayed or covered in various venues. The sentiment of admiration comes from heart-warming inspirational stories Zola (1991) describes as those about Olympic gold medalist runner Wilma Rudolph, who had polio as a child, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, America’s 32nd president, who hid his polio from the public but was arguably one of the greatest presidents in American history. The concept of pity, however, largely stems from media coverage of disability in charity telethons (Smart, 2009). Smart noted how Franklin Roosevelt began the March of Dimes charity to raise money for polio, and that the Salk’s vaccine was funded by the March of Dimes’ proceeds. Unquestionably, there are positive benefits of fundraising as in this case, and instances where funding goes directly to the disabled group for which the money is being raised for such purposes as purchasing wheelchairs, offsetting surgical costs, research and development, and so on; however, at what cost? Many disability groups and individuals wi‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍th disabilities have weighed in on the topic by protesting the telethons, arguing the portrayal of those with disabilities insinuates that they are poor, helpless, less than whole, and perpetually waiting to be cured (Barnett & Hammond, 1999; Smart, 2009; Smit, 2003). The demeaning portrayal of “Jerry’s Kids” in the Muscular Dystrophy Telethon perpetuates the helpless, childlike image society has of persons with disabilities, and this pity approach is believed to be what is needed to solicit donations. Shapiro (1992) noted how Jerry Lewis and telethon supporters believed that tapping into the public’s ability to pity and sympathize with the children was the best strategy to raise money for the cause. National Easter Seals Society founder James Williams noted, however, that their telethon actually raised twice the amount of money when they stopped using the pity approach, and due largely to disability advocates, the MD telethon and other charities have learned to listen to complaints regarding the demeaning public perceptions that are conveyed with the pity approach. CONCLUSION Clearly, depending on the pedagogy of the dogma of one’s academic discipline, occupational job duties, economic rewards or losses, and personal philosophy regarding disability, a number of different paradigm perspectives can evolve. The insight gained from exploring these perspectives can assist counselors in knowing how to work with those who subscribe to these views, and either work with them, around them, or through them as necessary to provide what is best for clients with disabilities. Statistics continue to show persons with disabilities globally lagging behind the general population in areas of education, income, health care, and socialization. It behooves counselors and related professionals to continue advocating for equal status and the best possible services for disenfranchised groups. We explore how to do this i‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍n later chapters.


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