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Imagine that your public health program is ready to be launched. How would you know whether or not your program was effective?

H Questions:
Imagine that your public health program is ready to be launched.
How would you know whether or not your program was effective?
Evaluation of program efficacy must be planned in advance of the program.
discuss metrics you will use to measure program success. That is, how will you know that your program had a positive impact on the health issue has already taken place, and that your evaluation methods suggest that your program had a great impact on the issue you identified.
Cited Sources : APA FORMAT/ in-text citation
Additional Information :
The outbreak of Covid-19 has resulted in the World Health Organization coming up with strategies aimed at limiting the spread of the disease. Social distancing amongst the general population and limited physical contact with one another has been the major way to lessen the extent of the disease. Among those with the Covid-19, the World Health Organization introduced the measures of social isolation aiming at reducing social interaction thus preventing contracting of disease to other people. Further, World Health Organization gave warning that the old and those with underlying conditions were at a bigger risk of Covid-19 hence requiring them to distance themselves from the social interaction. The measures of quarantine aim at preventing the asymptomatic people from infecting the old and those with underlying conditions who can be highly affected by the disease. Following these measures, the World Health Organization has helped to flatten the curve of Covid-19 among countries but has caused other psychological negative effects. Isolation and quarantine measures among the old and those with underlying conditions have resulted in anxiety, fear, loneness, depression, sadness, and frustrations leading to increased cases of mental health problems among people (Methanol—Arizona, 2020). The old people fully depend on the support of the family members or by the community where isolation and quarantine will increase loneliness resulting in mental problems. People with underlying conditions like diabetes require total care from family members and friends where isolation and quarantine would worsen their conditions. For this reason, research has shown that despite the great significance of isolation and quarantine in flattening the Covid-19 cases globally, the dangers of mental illness due to such measures have increased. The old and those with underlying conditions require attention and social interaction which has been inadequate during the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper shows how isolation and quarantine measures for Covid-19 have resulted in increased mental illness among most people globally and the essential ethical issues need to help solve the situation.
Mental Health Issue during Covid-19
The unexpected Covid-19 pandemic has forced World Health Organization to take measures that would reduce global infections. Controlled social interaction has been the major method to reduce the increased spread of the disease among vulnerable people. The old and those with the underlying condition are the major concern as they face the highest risk of the disease. For this reason, the health specialists required the old and those with underlying conditions to isolate themselves from the asymptomatic people. The victims of Covid-19 were required to quarantine until they recover from the disease. Individuals who had physical contact were expected to quarantine for fourteen days before getting to the public. Research has shown that quarantine has been an unpleasant experience as people suffered anxiety, fear, loss of freedom, uncertainty, boredom, loneliness, and depression which would result in mental illness (Czeisler, et, al, 2021). From social media, people could see how the victims of the Covid-19 suffered from difficult breathing and in some situations dying before getting to the hospital. Such a situation affected those in quarantine as they knew that contracting the coronavirus would mean the death of suffering. Before, the end of the fourteen days, the affected would have suffered many psychological challenges and worries about life. For example, if the victims were taken to quarantine while working in an organization such people would worry about losing their jobs upon ending the quarantine period as other workmates might not welcome them back to work. Other people would suffer about their families as they would not be allowed to interact with them. Such occasions resulted in psychological discomfort leading to mental challenges. Studies have shown that suicidal thoughts among these people have increased as most of them did not have hope of living after seeing what other victims have endured due to covid-19 (Czeisler, et, al, 2021). Other studies have shown that anger, aggression, regrets, and uncertainties made those in quarantine engage in substance taking to reduce anxiety and fear of contracting the disease (Panchal Kamal, & Cox, 2021). Research further indicates that after fourteen days of quarantine and victims concluded that they were positive, some would suffer mental torture due to fear of their loved ones (Methanol—Arizona, 2020). Therefore, quarantine measures have resulted in increased metal cases among many people globally.
The old are the vulnerable people upon contracting the disease. Statistics as of April 2020 showed that in mainland China approximately 80% of the total deaths among the Covid-19 patients were among people aged sixty years and above (Hwang, Rabheru, & Ikeda, 2020). Research further showed that in Italy, approximately 85% of deaths were among patients aged seventy years and above (Hwang, Rabheru, & Ikeda, 2020). The same figures were found in Japan where almost 30 % of total deaths were among the old people (Hwang, Rabheru, & Ikeda, 2020). The statistics indicated that the old people required enough protection where the World Health Organization reduced social interaction among the old people (Hwang, Rabheru, & Ikeda, 2020). Due to family love, family members decided to protect the old loved ones by reducing social interaction and in most cases isolating the old from the rest of the people. Unfortunately, the old depends on love, and social lives to cope with their age. Isolation brought loneliness among the old leading to other unpleasant conditions related to mental illness. For instance, the study indicated that older adults forced into isolation suffered from a depressive disorder which would result in mental illness (Hwang, Rabheru, & Ikeda, 2020). Further, research shows that the older suffered abnormal stress responses like anger, aggression, hypertension, and regrets leading to adverse health outcomes (Panchal Kamal, & Cox, 2021). As such, isolation among older adults has increased cases of mental illness as the old require support from family members and friends.
Individuals with underlying conditions like diabetes, HIV/AIDS, heart diseases, and other severe diseases are vulnerable upon getting Covid-19. The health professionals required these people to isolate from social domains to reduce the chances of contracting the disease. Unfortunately, these people depend on the love they get from those close to them for survival as already they are suffering from a given condition. For this reason, the isolation of these people resulted in suffering other conditions associated with anxiety, depression, and reduced self-trust leading to the emergence of mental illnesses. For example, a study shows that social isolation among people suffering from diabetes resulted in an 88.2% increase in patients suffering from blood pressure in the Adjara region in Georgia (European Society of Endocrinology, 2021). Another research showed that patients with hypocortisolism underwent increased cases of fear, anxiety, depression, and frustration which would increase chances of mental illnesses (European Society of Endocrinology, 2021). This shows that isolation of the vulnerable of Covid-19 would result in conditions associated with mental disorders. The old and those with underlying conditions require more love so that they can recover from other disorders. Social isolation reduces love among these populations leading to other conditions associated with mental illnesses.
Biological Nature of Isolation Resulting In Mental Illness
Social isolation means staying away from loved ones and friends. The loved ones increase hope, self-esteem, and love among people. Social isolation makes people share their feelings with other people who help in managing any negative feelings and emotions. Social isolation leads to an inability to share one’s feelings with loved ones and friends leading to situations of anger, aggression, and self-doubts. Anger and aggressions make people engage in other activities like substance abuse to reduce the effects (Panchal Kamal, & Cox, 2021). Consequently, such people become addicted to substance abuse, become depressed leading to bipolar disorder and mental illness. Also, socially isolated people lack emotional support leading to emotional numbness. Investigations show that emotional numbness increase hatred towards other people and in the critical situation leading to suicidal thoughts (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2020). Therefore, biologically, social isolation results in emotional numbness, due to lack of emotional support which would lead to mental illness to the affected.
Research indicates that physical distancing increases the chances of loneliness. Research further indicates that loneliness increases the chances of substance abuse thinking that they can get comfort from such substances (Panchal Kamal, & Cox, 2021). Loneliness also increases the chances of depression, anxiety, fear, worries as the affected do not have the opportunity to share with other people their feelings and emotions (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2020). Continued cases of depression, anxiety, fear, and worries make people suffer from mental challenges (Serafini, et al. 2020). Old people depend on family support to cope with different challenges including cognitive development. Social distancing from the old people would result in limited cognitive development hence mental illness. Study shows that the sick people require moral support to recover from their various conditions (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2020). The sick see isolation as a lack of love from the closest people which would result in hatred, anger, revenge thus increasing the chances of mental illness. Therefore, measures of isolation and quarantines would be necessary but other mental considerations would be necessary to fully solve the issue of Covid-19 effectively. Environmental Influence of Isolation to Mental Health
People suffering from mental health due to isolation require an environment that positively accepts their feelings and emotions. Going to the extent of having a mental illness means that such people have been facing a negative environment that gives disappointments rather than hope. Social stigma highly contributes to mental disorders where to allow for recovery such people should be given social attention to increase self-confidence and take them to their original status. Research comments that social attention reduces emotional numbness consequently helping the affected recover from the situation quickly. Most people suffering from mental disorders engage in substance abuse where it would be important to place such people in an environment free from drugs to fully recover from the situation. Lack of hope among the affected contributes greatly to increased mental disorder. In such a situation, victims of mental health need a positive environment that increases hope and reduces negative thoughts among the affected. Therefore, to solve mental health, the affected need to be included in a positive environment that increases hope and optimism in different aspects of life.
Method of Collecting Data
The major methods of collecting data in assessing mental health due to isolation and quarantine are through surveys where the target group shared their opinions and behaviors during isolation and quarantine. For example, in one of the studies researcher reported that people quarantined due to close contact with Covid-19 showed that 20%( 230 of 1057), showed fear, 18% ( 187 showed nervousness, 18% showed sadness, and 10% showed regrets. Contrary, only 4% showed relief and 5% showed happiness after getting quarantined. This situation indicated that most people suffer negatively due to isolation and quarantine. In another study where a survey was applied showed that most old people died due to Covid-19 hence requiring social isolation to reduce chances of infection. For instance, the study showed that in mainland China approximately, 85% of total deaths came from the old population (Hwang, Rabheru, & Ikeda, 2020). The research aimed at showing that old people are vulnerable to the disease and require social isolation to reduce their infection. In another study, the researcher used a survey to investigate the effect of quarantine among people living with diabetes. The study indicated that in Adjara Region in Georgia, an increase of 88.2% showed issues of blood pressure due to quarantine (European Society of Endocrinology, 2021). Therefore, the most used method of collecting data was a survey which gave the extent of mental sickness to those people under quarantine and isolations. Other methods used in this case would be interviews where the researchers interrogated health experts on the number of cases of people suffering from health problems due to quarantine and isolation.
Positive and Negative Cultural Factors to Mental Health
Researchers comment that cultural factors like gender roles may greatly influence social anxiety hence leading to mental disorder (Hofmann Asnaani, & Hinton, 2010). Gender role and role identification make people engage in activities that increase chances of mental disorder (Hofmann Asnaani, & Hinton, 2010). For example, culturally, men are expected to be strong even when situations are tough. In such expectation, when men are placed in isolation and quarantine family members and families expect them to cope with the situation without struggles. However, people fail to understand that even men require attention to cope with the situation effectively. Research has shown that most men suffer from depression and stress due to the assumption that they can cope with the situation. Therefore, to effectively solve the mental disorder such cultural belief on the superiority of a given gender to cope with mental challenges should be ignored. On a positive note, people believe in religion as a source of hope that makes people recover from different conditions (Hofmann Asnaani, & Hinton, 2010). In such a situation, religious people tend to console members who suffer from mental disorders and effectively make them recover quickly. Globally, people believe that families play a significant role in helping people recover from different conditions. Such a human aspect makes family members help their loved ones recover from mental disorders by providing the necessary assistance to overcome the situation. Therefore, the cultural and religious beliefs in society positively or negatively affect people recovery from their mental disorders and other serious conditions.
Ethical Consideration
The covid-19 situation is expected to continue existing and other serious outbreaks would come up requiring people to isolate and quarantine. The most important aspect would be to come with ethical considerations that would help solve the situation while improving the well-being of all people. For this reason during the isolation and quarantine period, families and the government should ensure that basic needs for the affected are provided at all times to encourage the isolated. Secondly, it would be ethical to help improve the physical and mental activities to allow the victims to enjoy their lives by doing the basic things required for growth. Thirdly, mental attention of the isolated and quarantined should be paramount to help the affected cope with the situation in an easy way (Ethical Use of Quarantine & Isolation, 2021). In such a situation, the moods of social withdrawal will be reduced hence solving the mental disorder among the affected. Taking care of the old and those with the underlying condition would be an important ethical aspect to solve the situation. In most cases, the old would feel withdrawn from society when there is no enough attention. Therefore, since the Covid-19 is expected to continue, family members and the government should ensure that the old and those with underlying conditions receive the best attention to solve the situation.
Conclusion
The covid-19 outbreak resulted in harsh measures that would result in mental disorders among people. Isolation and quarantine are aimed at reducing the infection rate among the vulnerable groups; the old and those with underlying conditions. By providing statistics, the paper has shown that the old suffer most from Covid-19 hence becoming necessary to isolate them to reduce the infection. However, the paper shows that isolation creates situations of anxiety, loneliness, fear, worries, uncertainties, and frustrations that increase the chances of mental disorders among the affected. The paper further shows that victims of mental illness need to be exposed to a positive environment that would help them recover quickly from the situation. Additionally, the paper shows that most researchers used surveys to explain the situation of mental disorders among people as it will give detailed information about the matter. The paper has also shown that social beliefs like gender role and identification can increase cases of mental disorders in society. However, family ties and religious faith help solve the situation as the affected get hope and trust in their lives. Finally, the paper shows that family members, friends, and the government should play a significant role in giving hope to Covid-19 victims by providing the required support.
References
Czeisler, M. É., Lane, R. I., Petrosky, E., Wiley, J. F., Christensen, A., Njai, R., … & Rajaratnam, S. M. (2020). Mental health, substance use, and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic—United States, June 24–30, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(32), 1049. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6932a1.htm#suggestedcitation
European Society Of Endocrinology, (2021) Studies Reveal Detrimental Impact of Social Isolation and Quarantine throughout the COVID-19 Pandemic. (2021). Retrieved 30 May 2021, from https://scitechdaily.com/studies-reveal-detrimental-impact-of-social-isolation-and-quarantine-throughout-the-covid-19-pandemic/
Hofmann, S. G., Anu Asnaani, M. A., & Hinton, D. E. (2010). Cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. Depression and anxiety, 27(12), 1117-1127.
Hwang, T. J., Rabheru, K., Peisah, C., Reichman, W., & Ikeda, M. (2020). Loneliness and social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Psychogeriatrics, 32(10), 1217-1220.
Methanol—Arizona, S. C. (2020). Mental Health, Substance Use, and Suicidal Ideation During the COVID-19 Pandemic—United States, June 24–30, 2020.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2020). Social isolation and loneliness in older adults: Opportunities for the health care system. National Academies Press.
Panchal, N., Kamal, R., & Cox, C. (2021). The Implications of COVID-19 for Mental Health and Substance Use. KFF. Retrieved 9 May 2021, from https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brief/the-implications-of-covid-19-for-mental-health-and-substance-use/.
Panchal, N., Kamal, R., & Cox, C. (2021). The Implications of COVID-19 for Mental Health and Substance Use. KFF. Retrieved 9 May 2021, from https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brief/the-implications-of-covid-19-for-mental-health-and-substance-use/.
Serafini, G., Parmigiani, B., Amerio, A., Aguglia, A., Sher, L., & Amore, M. (2020). The psychological impact of COVID-19 on the mental health in the general population. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 113(8), 531-537.
Ethical Use of Quarantine & Isolation. (2021). Retrieved 30 May 2021, from https://www.ama-assn.org/delivering-care/ethics/ethical-use-quarantine-isolation