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Communication Strategies

how defensive medicine is a root cause of high cost of healthcare in the U.S.

Assignment: research and construct a thorough preparation outline and write a speech on how defensive medicine is a root cause of high cost of healthcare in the U.S.
Outline Requirements: The preparation outline should explore the significance of a root cause of the group’s selected issue. Put another way, your overall goal is to help the group understand the complexity of the issue and why it’s difficult to solve. This should be informative, rather than persuasive, and it should only focus on the root cause; it should not discuss or propose solution ideas.
This exploration should be supported by research from at least 6 high quality sources, including expert testimony. (High quality means: reputable news and editorial sources, government sources, nonprofit organizations, and academic (peer-reviewed) articles or books.) All your sources should be cited on the outline and on a works cited list, and will eventually be cited aloud in the speech when it is delivered. (To help find your sources quickly, please place them in bold.) Arguments about the significance of the root cause should be easily discernible and should be supported via well developed evidence and warrants (reasoning).
Arrangement: The speech should be written in outline format, as explained in this lesson. Building off the template within the lesson will help ensure your speech remains organized and appropriately formatted.
Evaluation Checklist for Preparation Outline
Formats the outline with proper labeling and indentation. (See L05 Preparation Outline Template attachded.)
Includes the four components of an introduction, in the appropriate order.
Includes clear main points, with complete transitions between them.
Includes a clear conclusion.
Is complete, sufficient for at least a 6:00 speech
Is explained thoroughly enough that a peer reviewer can follow the argument. (i.e., more or less complete sentences, or at least clear long phrases)
Cites at least 6 quality sources within the prose of the outline, for eventual oral citation when delivered; format them in bold . These are drawn from a mix of reputable news and editorial sources, government sources, nonprofit organizations, and academic (peer-reviewed) articles or books. Additional sources may be used, but they don’t count toward the minimum of 6 sources.
Cites all sources parenthetically in the outline, again in bold to help others quickly find them. These sources should also appear in a correctly formatted works cited list in MLA or APA format.
Speech Requirements:
The speech should explore the significance of defensive medicine as a root cause of the high cost of healthcare. The overall goal is to help the group understand the complexity of the overall issue and why it’s difficult to solve.
This explanation should be well researched, and that research should be cited aloud in the speech. A bare minimum of six sources should be cited aloud, but additional cited sources likely will be necessary to fully develop your arguments. Sources should be credible: reputable news and editorial sources, government sources, nonprofit organizations, or academic (peer-reviewed) articles. Sources also should be cited parenthetically on your outline, as well as on a standard works cited list in MLA or APA format. As in the first draft of the speech outline, please place sources in bold to help your instructor quickly find them. (See below for penalties due to not citing sources aloud.)
Explanation of the significance of the root cause should demonstrate well developed argumentation, including effective use of clear reasoning (warrants) and credible, relevant evidence.
The speech introduction should effectively implement the four introduction components hook, relevance, thesis, preview. The conclusion should highlight the “so what” of the speech and should end strongly
content in the body should be appropriately divided into about three main points, typically of roughly equal length. These main points should be logically arranged and distinct. When appropriate, subdivision within main points should be used. Transitions should be used between all main points and between sub-points; these should contain summaries and then a link to or preview of the new topic. The specific function of these main points might vary a bit, but your overall purpose is to help us understand a root cause of the problem and why this is a challenge for addressing the issue. Generally, main points fit some sort of organizational pattern, which helps an audience more easily process the connections between a speaker’s ideas. Here are some examples you could use when exploring a single root cause:
1. Scope/Severity of The Root Cause, 2. Its Causes, 3. Its Effects
1. Its Causes, 2. Its Effects
1. Effect A, 2. Effect B, 3. Effect C
1. Initial State, 2. Current State, 3. Challenges Going Forward
1. Causes, 2. Why Past Solutions Haven’t Worked
These are the most common organizational patterns used for this sort of speech, although others certainly are possible depending on the research you uncover during the invention process; use good judgment, considering the constraints of both the assignment and your specific topic.
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Speech Citation Guidelines:
Citing sources aloud accomplishes several purposes. First, it gives the audience enough information to trust the source; second, it implicitly builds your credibility by demonstrating that you have thoroughly researched the issue and thus, hopefully, have a firm grasp on the topic as a whole. The oral citations of sources don’t need to be as thorough as you might see in a bibliographic entry. It should provide enough information to show the credibility of the source and the usefulness of the information itself, usually by highlighting its recency. Here are some examples:
According to a June 2018 Washington Post article…
I found one explanation at the Brookings Institute website, the most respected think tank in the US.
At a minimum, oral citations should include the publication or website, and the date or year, if available. If the author’s credibility also matters for establishing expert testimony, their name or names should be included as well.
One thing that can help with the flow in a speech is to make sure you don’t cram too much into a single sentence. In an essay, you might include both the information and the citation or signal phrase (“according to X”) all in the same sentence, but in a speech it’s easier on the ear–and easier to say!–if it’s split up. For instance, here’s a citation spread across several shorter sentences.
Dunning and Kruger explored this mis-assessment of competence by initially looking at perceptions of humor, grammar, and logic. And that research was published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology in 1999. In their article, they note….
Citing Sources on Your Outline
You should include these oral citations in your outline, in addition to the more standard parenthetical citations. So the above example might look like this in the outline:
Dunning and Kruger explored this mis-assessment of competence by initially looking at perceptions of humor, grammar, and logic. They note…. (Dunning and Kruger, 1999).
Note that in the outline, the citation is included parenthetically. (While it doesn’t apply in this example, any quoted material also should go in quotation marks, in addition the the parenthetical citation itself.) In most cases, you will need to cite a bit more in the outline, for academic integrity, than you will cite aloud. Be sure to check with your instructor if you have questions about what should be cited in your outline, but in general, the same practices you’d use in an essay will apply.
Deciding What to Cite
There are several things speakers should always cite aloud:
numbers and statistics
quotations
interviews you conducted
expert testimony
someone else’s theory, proposal, or conceptual framework
research studies and surveys
You also should cite specific facts that aren’t common knowledge, especially if an audience member might not initially be certain of their truth.
Some things don’t need to be formally cited aloud:
your own explanations and experiences
prestige testimony
facts that are common knowledge
historical information, so long as it is available from multiple sources and is uncontested