Discussion: Community-Level Factors
Researchers who investigate the causes of specific health problems look at a wide range of influences on several different levels. For instance, if researchers were investigating obesity at the individual level, they could examine eating habits and frequency of sedentary activities like TV watching. If the health problems also are population wide, as obesity is, it is important from a public health standpoint to focus on community-level factors such as availability of healthy foods and recreational facilities.
Communities and organizations have personalities and can resist change in a manner similar to how individuals can become set in their ways. Have you ever been part of a group where the social norms created pressure to behave a certain way? One possible strategy for changing behaviors is to address a community or organization rather than individuals. For this you would use theories geared to groups rather than to individuals.
The article by Krug et al. in the Learning Resources discusses violence and health and explores how the causes of violence can be viewed at many different levels. Although violence is commonly thought of as happening between individuals, community-level factors may be adding to the problem:
“The third level explores the community context—i.e., schools, workplaces, and neighborhoods. Risk at this level may be affected by factors such as the existence of a local drug trade, the absence of social networks, and poverty. All these factors have been shown to be important in several types of violence” (Krug et al., 2002, p. 1085).
For this Discussion, consider community level factors that might contribute to injury-related public health problem that is present in a country or a community with these thoughts in mind:
xxxxxx Post a description of the injury-related public health problem you selected. Include incidence rates for this problem in the country or community you selected and a description of populations at risk for it. Then, explain which community-level factors might influence increased risk for injury in its population. Identify and briefly describe an organization (e.g., school, workplace) in which violence might be a chronic issue in that country or community.
Consider the role of change agents (i.e., a person or group that indirectly or directly facilitates change) as you apply the Stage Theory of Organizational Change to the topic of violence.
Be sure to support your postings and responses to your colleagues’ postings with specific references to the Learning Resources and the current literature.
Andersen, L. P., Labriola, M., Andersen, J. H., Lund, T., & Hansen, C. D. (2015). Bullied at school, bullied at work: a prospective study. BMC Psychology, 3, 35. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-015-0092-1
Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (Eds.). (2008). Mobilizing organizations for health promotion. In Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (4th ed.). (pp. 335-361). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Glanz,K., Rimer,B.K., Viswanath, K. (2008). Health behavior and health educatio : theory, research, and practice (4th ed.). Copyright 2008 by John Wiley & Sons – Books. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons – Books via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Krug, E. G., Mercy, J. A., Dahlber, L. L., & Zwi, A. B. (2002). Public health: The world report on violence and health. Lancet, 360(9339), 1083–1088.
Ward, J. A., de Castro, A. B., Tsai, J., Linker, D., et al. (2010). An injury prevention strategy for teen restaurant workers: Washington state’s ProSafety Project. AAOHN Journal, 58(2), 57–66.
Discussion: Community-Level Factors